Piston cooling plays a critical role in modern engines. The intense heat generated during combustion threatens their structural integrity. Lightweight aluminum alloys, commonly used for lightweight pistons, exhibit strength reduction at elevated temperatures, necessitating a delicate balance between strength and weight. Additionally, sharp edges on the piston crown create hot spots. These localized temperature spikes can lead to carbonization and pre-ignition, compromising engine efficiency. Oil jets strategically target critical areas, such as the piston crown and ring lands, ensuring uniform temperature distribution. By directing cooling oil precisely, engineers mitigate hot spots, maintaining consistent performances.

Particleworks creates digital prototypes of pistons and engines to investigate:

  • Improvements of jet nozzle design
  • Flowrate and jet direction impact on cooling capabilities
  • Air drag effects on oil distribution due to piston movements
  • Sloshing and accelerations influence cooling performances
  • Piston design modifications for higher heat transfer coefficients
Piston and engine can be simulated with CFD, in a mesh-less way thanks to Particle Simulation Particleworks. Alongside with oil jets and sprays improvements, cooling capabilities of oil, while also accounting for air can be studied easily.
Estimation of cycle average convective heat transfer coefficient on the underside of a racing piston for different layouts of oil jets

Gaspare Argento, Ducati Motor Holding - Ducati Corse Division

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Piston oil jet simulation

Yuki Takahashi, Hitachi Automotive Systems, Ltd

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Particleworks MPS method validation for oil piston cooling jets in a high-performance engine application

Francesco Porta, HPE COXA

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Optimization of the Piston cooling oil jet using Particleworks with modeFRONTIER

David Percival, EnginSoft SpA | Rod Giles, Royal Enfield

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Designing and analysing the cooling of a medium speed engine piston using MPS method

Sami Ojala, Wärtsilä Finland Oy

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Particleworks can define the full kinematic of piston movement and simulate several operating cycles
Piston gallery cooling and operating engine temperature are predicted by simulation (CHT and MPS coupling)
Complex and complete engine simulation with mesh-less CFD, showing crankcase and piston sloshing inside the motor